It is the process that provides a change for plant traits to construct new phenotypes with desired characteristics. Breeding programs are aimed at improving and increasing traits such as quality, flavor, yield, tolerance of abiotic and biotic stresses, and storage period. Plant breeding programs can be divided into two groups:
CLASSICAL PLANT BREEDING
Plants are selected with desirable characters and elimination of undesirable characters plants.
- Genome doubling
- Hybrid technology
- Plant tissue culture
- Protoplast fusion
- Embryo rescue
MODERN PLANT BREEDING
Molecular biology techniques and omics technologies are employed for selecting desirable plants
- Molecular markers – SNP, SSR, RAPD, ISSR, RFLP.
- TILLING and EcoTILLING
- Genome analysis – Sanger and NGS
- Transcriptome analysis – Microarray, NGS.
- Genome editing – Transgenic technology, RNAi, CRISPR/Cas9
Brief outline of OMICS technologies
Conventional / Classical plant breeding techniques have made considerable progress in the development of improved varieties, it has not been able to keep pace with the increasing demand of food in developing countries. Therefore an instant need is felt in incorporating molecular plant breeding technology to speed up crop improvement programs.