Genetics Cause for Mendel Gene Traits

Gregor Mendel Experiment

Mendel started his experiments by carefully selecting seven qualitative characters in pea (Pisum sativum L.) in 1856. Later on in the year 1900, it was rediscovered by three independent researchers – Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak. 

Seven Character Traits

SEED SHAPE

  • Round and Wrinkled
  • Gene behind seed shape is starch-branching enzyme – SBE1 gene – insertion mutation leading to limitation in the starch biosynthesis may lead to an increase in the accumulation of sugars and a change in the osmotic pressure in the developing seeds. 

STEM LENGTH

  • Tall and Dwarf 
  • le-1 gene function is GA 3-oxidase1  – Activity is reduced due to single base G to A substitution.  

COTYLEDON COLOR 

  • Yellow and Green 
  • Stay-green gene- 6-bp insertion of two amino-acid insertion i mutation and is responsible for Mendel’s green cotyledon characteristics. 

SEED COAT / FLOWER COLOR

  • Purple and White color 
  • Regulation in anthocyanin biosynthesis  – bHLH transcription factor – G to A substitution at splice site leading to frameshift mutation and premature stop codon. 

POD COLOR

  • Green and Yellow 
  • Chloroplast structure in pod wall 

POD FORM 

  • Inflated and Constricted 
  • Sclerenchyma formation in pods 

FLOWER POSITION 

  • Axial and Terminal 
  • Meristem function 

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